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Phat Hoc Pho Thong KhoaTh Ba
Thch Thien Hoa

Bai Th Nam

Diet e (Nirodha Dukkha)

A. M e

Sau khi noi ve phng dien au kho xong, c Phat noi ve phng dien an lac.

Sau khi giai bay ay u hien tng nhan qua ve phan nhiem, ve phng dien au kho xong, c Phat lien thuyet minh cac hien tng nhan qua ve phan tnh, ve phng dien an lac. Noi mot cach khac, sau khi day xong Kho e va Tap e, c Phat lien day Diet e va ao e. Co ngi ch thay hai phan au cua T e la Kho va Tap, nen a tng Phat la ao yem the, bi quan. Ho cho rang Phat giao gieo vao long ngi s chan i va tuyet vong. Ho a lam ln! Ke bi quan, chan i la ke thay cuoc i xau xa, au kho, ma khong tm ra phng phap e thoat ra canh ay, ma ch buong xuoi tay ngoi nhn va khoc than, sau kho. ao Phat khong lam nh the. ao Phat trnh bay cho moi ngi thay cai hien tai en toi cua mnh, cai hoan canh xau xa, co nhieu s khuyet iem, e cai oi no, kien tao lai mot cuoc song ep e, an vui hn. Mot giao ly nh the, khong the goi la yem the, bi quan c ma chnh la yeu i, lac quan, v con tin tng kha nang kien tao cua mnh va chung sinh. Canh gii ma c Phat trnh bay cho chung ta thay ay la mot canh gii hoan toan trai ngc vi canh gii toi tam, sau kho, n au ma chung ta ang song. Canh gii ay la mot canh gii huy hoang, an lac, ma ch nhng ngi a diet tuc, het me mi at c.

Canh gii ay, chung ta se nghe c Phat trnh bay trong phan Diet e sau ay:

B. Chanh e

I. nh Ngha

Sao goi la Diet-e?

Diet la tieu diet, tr diet. Diet ay tc la diet duc vong me m, phien nao. e la ly le chac that, ung an do tr tue sang suot soi thau va thuyet minh. Diet-e, ch Pali goi la "Nirodha Dukkha" tc la s that ung an, ma c Phat a thuyet minh ve hoan canh tot ep ma moi ngi co the at c khi a diet het moi phien nao, me m. Phien nao, me m la nguyen nhan cua au kho, nh chung ta a nghe Phat thuyet trong phan Tap-e.

Kho la qua, ma Tap la nhan. Diet kho ma ch diet cai qua th khong bao gi het kho c. Muon diet kho tan goc, th phai diet cai nhan cua no, nh muon nho cai than cay, th phai bi cho het cai re cua no an sau trong long at.

Trong kinh Nhan qua, Phat day rang: "Cac ong phai biet, v Tap nhan phien nao mi co qua kho sanh t, vay cac ong phai dt tr phien nao tap nhan. Khi a dt tr roi, lai thng thng phai nam chat cho dt tr cho chan chac, khong khi nao ni bo. en khi chng c ao qua Niet Ban, th tat nhien tap nhan phien nao phai diet het, ma qua kho luan hoi cung khong con".

The cho biet, muon giai thoat tat phai tu hanh. Ma tu hanh la g?

La diet tr tap nhan phien nao vay. Diet tr c phan nao tap nhan la a bc en gan giai thoat chng ay, nh mot cai phao; cang bt dan c chng nao vat nang dm no xuong, th no lai cang noi dan len mat nc chng ay vay.

II. Th Lp oan Hoac (me lam)

Nh chung ta a biet trong bai Tap-e, tap nhan phien nao rat phc tap, co th mong manh, can ct, co th in sau vao tam thc t lau i lau kiep rat kho dt tr. Do tnh chat can sau cua cac th phien nao ay, nen oan tr cung phai tuan t, theo th lp.

Co hai lp oan hoac chnh la:

1. Kien ao s oan hoac: Nhng me lam nay, khi thay chanh ao mi oan c. ay la s dt tr nhng sai lam ve phan ly tr. Nhng phien nao nay thuoc loai can ct gay ra bi s gan gui ta s, s tuyen truyen ta vay cua sach v, cung nhng ngi tri kien khong chan chanh. Neu gap c Minh s, thay oc chan ly, th lien oan het. V the s dt tr nhng phien nao nay, goi la "Kien ao s oan hoac".

2. Tu ao s oan hoac: Nhng me lam nay, khi tu ao mi oan c. ay la s oan tr nhng phien nao, sau kn, a am sau goc re trong tam thc, bien thanh thoi quen, nh s chap nga, s say am nhuc duc, tham, gian, kieu cang v.v... oi vi nhng th phien nao nay, phai can nhieu cong phu tu hanh deo dai, chac chan mi co the oan tr c. Do o, mi goi la "Tu ao s oan hoac".

III. Cac Tang Bac Tu Chng

oan tren la noi tong quat ve hai loai oan diet phien nao cho de phan biet va de hieu. en ay, e co mot y niem ro rang ve cac tang bac tu chng ma mot hanh gia can phai trai qua, chung ta hay tuan t iem qua cac qua v t thap en cao.

1. T gia hanh: Muon oan tr kien hoac, trc tien ngi tu hanh phai ri xa cac ta thuyet, xoay tam y, t tng dan vao chan ly: vo thng, vo nga, bat tnh, t e, e nhan chan c cac tanh cach vo thng, vo nga, bat tnh, khong that v.v... cua cuoc i. Nh s gan gui vi chan ly nh the, nen nhng ieu thay biet sai lam ien ao se tan het va 88 mon kien hoac cung khong con. Tuy nhien, khong phai ch trong mot luc ma oan c tat ca kien hoac; trai lai, phai can nhieu thi gi, cong phu tu tap. T nhng t tng, thanh kien me lam cua pham phu ma en Thanh tr e d vao dong Thanh qua, ngi tu hanh phai tu bon gia hanh sau ay:

a) Noan v: Noan la hi nong; v la a v. Ngi xa, khi muon lay la, ho dung hai thanh cui tre co sat vao nhau; trc khi la sap bat len, phai qua giai oan phat ra hi nong. Ngi tu hanh muon co la tr tue, cung phai trai qua giai oan hi nong. Tat nhien hi nong la tr tue cha ot chay c cui phien nao, nhng khong the khong qua giai oan nay c. o la giai oan "Noan v".

b) anh v: anh la chop cao. Qua khoi giai oan Noan v, ngi tu hanh tiep tuc tien bc va len c tren chop nh nui me lam. ng a v nay, toan than hanh gia c tam trong khoang khong gian rong rai vo bien, nhng chan cha ri khoi chop nui me lam.

c) Nhan v: Nhan la nhan nhn, chu ng. Ngi biet nhn, luon luon van yen lang sang suot trc s khuay pha cua oi phng. Ngi tu hanh len en bac nay, tr giac ngo a gan sang to, than tam van gi c mc yen lang trong sang, mac du cac phap co lang xang va an hien.

d) The e nhat v: Bac nay cao qu nhat trong i. Tu en bac nay la mot cong phu rat to tat, gan giai thoat ra ngoai vong Duc gii, nh con dieu giay bay lieng gia khong trung, t do qua lai, khong con b cai g lam ngan ngai, ngoai si giay gai nho. Neu bt si gai kia la dieu bay luon. Cung nh the, ngi tu hanh pha het phan kien-hoac nho nht sau cung la c giai thoat luon.

Tom lai, ngi tu hanh thng xuyen qua bon mon gia hanh nay, tc la pha c cai lam ve tri kien hay kien hoac, cai lam cua Phi-phi-tng ma chng ang qua Tu-a-hoan la qua v au tien trong Thanh-van-tha.

2. Tu a hoan: Tau dch la D lu qua (d vao dong Thanh). qua v nay, y thc a sang suot, khong con b me lam na, song that-thc con chap nga, nen phai tr lai trong coi Duc, nhieu nhat la bay phen sanh t na, mi got sach cac kiet s phien nao tham kn, nam nep trong tam thc, va chng qua A La Han.

3. T a ham: Tau dch la Nhat lai, ngha la mot phen sanh lai coi Duc e tu hanh va dt cho sach phan me lam coi Duc, mi tien en bc A La Han. Tren kia, qua Tu a hoan ch la ket qua cua cong phu tu hanh oan c kien-hoac, ch cha a ong en t-hoac. Sau khi chng qua Thanh au tien roi, phai tu na e oan tr t-hoac, mi chng c bac nay. Tuy nhien, coi Duc co chn pham t-hoac, ma v nay ch mi oan co 6 pham, con 3 pham na cha oan. Ngha la mi oan sau pham tho thien ben ngoai, con ba pham sau kn ben trong cha oan. V the, phai tr lai mot phen e oan cho het ba phan sau, mi bc len Thanh qua th ba la A na ham c.

4. A na ham: Tau dch la Bat lai (ngha la khong tr lai coi Duc na). Khi con b me lam cua coi Duc loi keo, mi sanh vao coi Duc. en a v A na ham nay nhng me lam ay khong con na, nen khong b tai sanh ay na, tr trng hp phat nguyen tr lai coi nay e o sanh. V nay coi Tri Ngu-tnh-c thuoc Sac-gii, cung goi la Ngu-bat-hoan-thien hay Ngu na ham. V nay a cach xa chung ta nh tri vi vc, a thoat ra ngoai coi Duc. Tuy the, ho van con mang trong mnh nhng me lam vi te cau sanh cua hai coi Sac va Vo-sac. V vay, Ngu-tnh-c thien, ho phai tu luyen e dt cho het vi te hoac, mi bc len Thanh qua A La Han (T-hoac gom co 9 pham. T a ham qua oan sau hoac, A na ham qua oan them ba hoac; en A La Han qua la oan het).

5. A La Han: ay la qua v cao nhat, trong Thanh Van Tha. Tau dch co ba ngha:

a) ng cung: V nay co phc c hoan toan, tr hue hn ca, ang lam ni phc ien cho chung sinh cung dng.

b) Pha ac. V nay a pha tan nhng nhien nao toi ac, khong con b chung khuay pha sai s troi buoc na.

c) Vo sanh. V nay khong con b xoay van trong sanh t luan hoi na, v a pha tr c phien nao la yeu to cua sanh t luan hoi.

Trong ba ngha nay, Vo sanh la ngha quan trong hn het, nen a c neu len trong ch A La Han. V nay khong nhng a pha het me hoac nong can, ma chnh ngay chung t me lam tham kn cung a dt sach. Cho en chung t chap nga la nguon goc phien nao, nguon goc luan hoi, cung b dep lai mot ben, khong con bong dang ra vao trong A lai da thc na.

Tanh cach cua long nga chap la khien chung sinh luon luon co chap ban than nho hep, tao thanh ranh gii gia mnh va ngi, mnh va s vat, e roi gay nen vo lng toi nghiep va chu vo lng kho bao. Mot tanh cach nguy hai cua long nga chap na la thng lam cho chung sinh khong to ngo, khong the nhap c cai tanh "ong nhat, khong mat" cua van s van vat. Do o, chung sinh phai chu lam noi thang tram vi xac than be nho cua mnh.

V A La Han, do s co cong ben ch, a diet c long chap nga ay, nen khong b song chet kho au, lo buon s hai chi phoi. Nh o e cua a Phu dung, mot khi a bo c benh ghien th khong con ra vao ni tiem hut lam ban vi ban en ong khoi na. A La Han la v a oan c cai sai lam cua coi tri Sac-cu-canh, hay cai lam cua tri Phi-phi-tng, nen khong con vng van vi cac coi tri ay na.

Song qua A La Han cung chia lam hai bc, tuy theo can c lanh li hoac cham lut cua cac v ay.

a) Bat hoi tam on A La Han: la v A La Han tram khong tre tch, t thoa ch vao a v a chng, ch khong phat tam xoay ve ai Tha.

b) Hoi tam ai A La Han: la v A La Han li can li tr, phat tam xoay ve ai Tha rong ln ch khong t man a v a chng.

IV. Gia Tr Dieu Dung Cua 4 Coi Thanh

Bon qua thanh cua Thanh van tren ay, eu la nhng ket qua giai thoat hien nhien cua cong phu tu tap. Khong c can c nao eu co the ngay trong canh gii cua mnh (kinh goi la t a, t gii), ma tu tap e at en bon qua v ay. He oan tr me lam c chng nao th chng qua en chng ay, ch khong phai ch sanh qua the gian khac mi chng qua kia au.

Khi chng en qua Tu a hoan th goi "Kien-ao s oan". ay, y thc a tng ng vi Hue tam s, sang suot, trc nhan ao ly mot cach ro rang. Con cac v sau, thuoc ve "Tu-ao s oan", ngha la sau khi a goi ra cac chung t me lam (t hoac) cua A lai da thc mi chng c. Do s dt tr phien nao sau hay can o, ma dieu dung cua moi qua v khac nhau.

a v "Kien-ao s oan" la thanh tu c nam phep than thong (cong dung t tai khong b chng ngai):

a) Thien nhan thong: Nhan lc soi thay khap muon loai cung s sanh hoa trong the gii bao la hien tai.

b) Thien nh thong: Nh lc nghe khap moi ni, u cac tieng tam ong loai va d loai.

c) Tha tam thong: Tam lc biet c tam niem, s cau cua ke khac.

d) Tuc mang thong: Tr lc hay biet cac kiep trc cua mnh.

) Than tuc thong: Co hai ngha: mot la c than thong t tai nh y muon, hai la trong giay lat muon i au lien c nh y muon, khong b s vat hu hnh lam chng ngai.

Nam phep than thong nay, tuy co ac biet hn nhan loai nhieu, song cha phai la iem quan trong cua ngi tu hanh cau giai thoat. iem quan trong nhat cua ngi tu giai thoat la "Lau tan thong". Lau tan thong la c tr tue thong suot ca ba i, khong con b cac phien nao hu lau lam ngan ngai, ngha la giai thoat sanh t. Ch nhng v A La Han mi c qua nay.

(Xem tiep bai th sau)

Minh Quang posted July 16, 2002

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