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Phat Hoc Pho Thong KhoaTh Ba
Thch Thien Hoa

Bai Th Chn

ao e (Nirodha Gamadukkha)
(Tiep theo)

Ngu Can Ngu Lc

A. M e

Trong 37 mon tr ao, Ngu can va Ngu lc la nhng phng phap quy bau, cung quan trong nh cac phap khac; co the a ngi tu hanh t a v pham phu en cac Thanh qua trong ba tha. Chung la s phuc sc trang nghiem, la phng tien cong hieu giup ngi thang tien tren bc ng tu ao, chng qua. Vay Phat t chung ta khong the khong biet e hanh tr.

B. Chanh e

I. nh Ngha Ngu Can

Ngu can la nam can. Can ay tc la can ban, la goc re, la nguon goc e tat ca cac thien phap phat xuat.

Luan Tr o, quyen th mi, giai rang: "Nam can nay la can ban e phat sanh tat ca thien phap, nen goi la ngu can". Nam can ay la: Tn can, Tan can, Niem can, nh can, Hue can.

II. Thanh Phan Va Noi Dung Cua Ngu Can

1. Tn can: la long tin manh me vng chac. Long tin nay khong giong nh long tin mu quang, vo ieu kien, bat chap ly tr cua phan nhieu ngoai ao. Long tin ay la con e cua ly tr, la ket qua cua s suy luan sang suot, cua s quan sat ky cang. c Phat khong bao gi bat buoc Phat t tin mot ieu g ma khong suy luan c, khong giai thch c.V long tin cua ngi Phat t khi t tr xet oan. Bi the nen no vo cung vng chac, manh liet. Chnh no la can ban phat sinh cac hanh lanh, Phat day: "Tin la me vo lng cua cong c". Nhng Phat t tin cai g? - Phat t tin Tam Bao:

- Tin Phat: Phat t biet rang c Phat la ang hoan toan giac ngo, giai thoat. V the, Phat t suot i tin tng theo Phat, e hng tien en s giac ngo, giai thoat ma Phat a than chng.

- Tin Phap: Phap la chan ly, la s that ma c Phat a kham pha ra va truyen lai cho chung ta. Hay noi mot cach khac, phap la giao ly ung nh s that ma c Phat a thuyet minh. Chung ta tin tng nhng giao ly ay, v ngi noi ra la c Phat, a than chng c va giac ngo c nh giao ly ay.

- Tin Tang: Tang la ngi that hanh cac giao ly cua Phat e giac ngo mnh va ngi, la ke thay Phat a cao ngon uoc chanh phap sang ngi, e soi ng cho chung sanh. V the, Phat t suot i quy hng ve Tang.

2. Tan can: Tan la tinh tan. Tan can la s dung manh tinh tan tren bc ng tu tap khong bao gi thoi lui. Neu a co long tin chac chan ma khong tinh tan thc hien, lam theo nhng ieu mnh tin, th long tin suong ay tr thanh vo dung, khong a chung ta en au ca.

Vay cho nen ngi Phat t a tin Tam Bao, th phai luon luon tinh tan thc hanh giao ly cua Phat. Theo Luan Nhiep ai Tha, tinh tan co ba th:

- B giap tinh tan: Ngha la mang ao giap tinh tan. Ngi Phat t trong cuoc chien au e diet tr au kho, tien ti giai thoat, can phai mang ao giap tinh tan, e khi xong pha vao tran a "phien nao", khoi b ma quan ham hai. Nh co ao giap nay, ngi Phat t tin tng nang lc cua mnh hung dung tien ti, khong s gian nan nguy hiem, khong lui bc trc mot tr ngai hay mot ch thu nao.

- Gia hanh tinh tan: Ngha la luon luon gang sc khong bao gi dng ngh tren bc ng i en giai thoat. Vi th tinh tan nay, ngi Phat t cang tien cang hang, cang them sc lc, cang phan ch khong bao gi biet met moi.

- Vo hy tuc tinh tan: Vo hy tuc tinh tan ngha la khong vui sng t man, cho la va u khi mi thu c mot t thang li tren ng tu hanh. Ngi Phat t cha chng c Phat qua th con gia cong gang sc tu luyen mai, ch khong chu dng ngh, vui thu vi mot qua v thap thoi, tam b, nh ngi bo hanh khi cha en ch cuoi cung, th con hang hai bc mai, ch khong chu cham dt cuoc hanh trnh cua mnh, bang cach an phan mai trong mot quan tro ben ng.

3. Niem can: Niem la ghi nh. Ghi nh nhng g?

a) Th nhat niem th: ngha la nh tu bo th. Ngi Phat t thng ngay nh em tai san bo th cho ngi ban cung; em hung lc cu giup ngi s hai; em chanh phap ch giao cho ngi si me, khien ho het kho c vui.

b) Th hai niem gii: ngha la nh tr tnh gii e oan tr cac phien nao nghiep chng, tang trng moi hanh lanh. Gii co ba th:

Nhiep luat nghi gii: Nhng gii e ngan cam cac hanh nghiep tho xau, oan diet cac nghiep chng ni than tam.

Nhiep thien phap gii: Nhng quy ieu ung phap va li ch, ngi thc hanh theo no, co the thanh tu tat ca phap lanh.

Nhieu ch hu tnh gii: Nhng ieu luat lam li ch an lac cho tat ca chung sinh.

c) Th ba niem thien: Luan Nhiep ai Tha co noi: "Thien niem tru la an tru bon mon thien nh". Vay niem thien la nh tu cac niem thien nh, e gan sach tat ca phien nao, the chng chan nh:

4. nh can: nh hay tnh l do dch ngha ch Phan la Dhyana (Thien na). nh la lang tam yen tnh, chuyen chu vao chanh phap, e suy at that ngha cua no. Theo Luan Nhiep ai Tha, nh co the chia lam ba bac:

- An tru nh: e tam an tru vao nh canh, khong cho tan ong, do o phien nao c tieu tr.

- Dan phat nh: Do oan sach phien nao nen c phat sanh sau mon than thong la cac cong c thu thang.

- Thanh s tac s nh: Do a phat khi c cac cong c, than thong, nen thng lam li ch cho tat ca chung sanh; cu o chung sanh giai thoat sanh t, chng c Niet Ban.

5. Hue can: Hue la tr hue sang suot, tham nhap c chan tng cua van phap. Tr hue ay khong co s phan biet, v phan biet la tac dung cua vong thc, la me lam. Cung theo Luan Nhiep ai Tha, tr hue co ba th:

- Vo phan biet gia hanh hue: Quan tr nay khong con thay co phan biet, nhng con co gia hanh, ngha la con phai dung cong tu hanh, e thanh tu hoan toan vo phan biet tr. V the, nen goi la " vo phan biet gia hanh hue".

- Vo phan biet hue: Tr hue nay khong co s phan biet, ma khong can phai gia hanh v a thuan thuc. Do khong phan biet nen khong co me vong. Nh tr hue nay, ngi tu hanh c t tai the chng nhan nh.

- Vo phan biet hau ac hue: Hay hau ac tr, ngha la tr hue co c sau khi a chng c chan nh. Tr hue nay hoan toan sang suot, to ngo c that ngha cua cac phap. Ch Phat nh hau ac tr nay ma thi tac vo lng cong c, e cu o chung sanh.

Noi mot cach tong quat gian d, hue can la tr hue do thien nh a lam lang sach cac vong tng, phan biet ma phat sanh. No khong at c s that cua cac phap; no la can nguyen phat sanh moi viec v ai e giai thoat chung sinh.

III. nh Ngha Ngu Lc

Ngu lc tc la nam nang lc v ai, nam than lc cua Ngu can. Noi mot cach de hieu: ngu can nh nam canh tay, con ngu lc nh la sc manh cua nam canh tay ay.

IV. Thanh Phan Va Noi Dung Cua Ngu Lc

1. Tn lc: tc la thanlc cua c tin, hay sc manh ln lao, vi dieu do tn can phat sinh.

2. Tan lc: tc than lc cua c tinh tan, hay sc manh bat thoi chuyen, kien co, co the san bang moi tr lc, sc manh nay do tan can phat sinh.

3. Niem lc: tc la than lc cua s ghi nh, hay sc manh ln lao ben chac cua niem can.

4. nh lc: tc than lc cua s tap trung t tng hay sc manh v ai cua nh can.

5. Hue lc: tc than lc cua tr hue hay sc manh vo bien cua hue can.

Noi mot cach tong quat, nhng sc manh nay la ket qua thau at c do s kien co tu luyen cua Ngu can. No nh la mot ngon la bat len sai khi ngi ta a no lc co sat hai cay cui vao nhau e lay la.

C. Ket Luan

Dieu Dung Cua Ngu Can Va Ngu Lc

Nh chung ta a thay tren, Ngu can va Ngu lc va lam hai can ban, va la ngh lc e phat sinh, tang trng vo lng cong c thu thang.

Bat luan ngi nao, he a lay tr lam nen tang, tinh tan that hanh chanh phap (tan), hang ghi nh chanh phap e tien tu (niem), tap trung t tng e tr sach vo minh phien nao, em dieu hue vo phan biet (hue) e chng chan nh, th ngi ay the nao cung nam chac trong tay qua v vo thng Bo e. V sao? V ngi ay a co nhng than lc v ai (Ngu lc) do Ngu can gay tao. Vi ngu lc nay, hanh gia nh ngi bo hanh co u phng tien linh li, dieu dung e bang rng, vt bien va i en ch cuoi cung. ch cuoi cung cua ngi tu hanh theo chanh phap tc la thanh Phat.en ch nay, ngi ay la anh sang cua chung sinh, la ruong phc toi thang e chung sinh gieo mam an lac. Chnh ngi nay mi co u than lc, dieu dung lam cho chung sinh tr thanh nhng ke hoan toan giai thoat, hoan toan giac ngo.

Ket qua cua Ngu can va Ngu lc ln lao, quy bau nh the o, chung ta khong the khong tu theo hai phap mon ay.

 

 

. That Bo e Phan

A. M e

That Bo e phan cung la mot phap mon quan trong khong kem g ngu can, ngu lc. S d c Phat che ra nhieu phap mon nh the la e tuy can c tng ngi, ai hp phap mon nao th tu phap mon ay. Nhng phap mon nay ve ten goi, ve chi tiet th co khac nhau, nhng ve ai the, ve tinh than th co nhieu cho giong nhau. V the, chung ta se thay trong phap mon "That Bo e phan" co nhieu iem giong nh trong "T Nh y tuc" hay "Ngu can, Ngu lc".

B. Chanh e

I. nh Ngha That Bo e Phan

Bo e do phien am ch Phan Boddhi ma ra. Ngi Trung hoa dch la Giac ao, hay ao qua giac ngo. Phan la tng phan, tng loai. That Bo e phan la bay phap tu tap tuan t hng en ao qua vo thng Bo e, hay bay phap giup ngi tu hanh thanh tu ao qua ai giac.

No cung co ten la That giac chi. "Giac: tc la Bo e, con "Chi" tc cung nh phan vay. That giac chi tc la bay nhanh, bay phng tien i en ch giac ngo.

II. Thanh Phan Va Noi Dung Cua That Bo e Phan

That Bo e phan gom co:

1. Trach phap: Trach la la chon; Phap la phap mon, la phng phap tu hanh. Trach phap la dung tr hue e la chon phap lanh e tu, phap d e tranh. Trong s tu tap, neu ta khong co tr phan biet chanh ta, tat phai lam lac. Nh cac bai trc a noi, long tin cua ngi Phat t phai da tren ly tr, neu khong la me tn. c Phat co day: "Hay dung tr hue suy nghiem, gian trach cac phap, roi se tin tho, that hanh theo". Neu tu lam, tin cha, ieu co nguy hai gap tram nghn lan ngi khong tu hanh. V vay, Phat t chung ta muon thang tien tren ng giac ngo, giai thoat, khong phai nghe ai bao g tin nay, khong phai t bao mot cach ba bai: "ao nao cung tot ca"; khong phai dung hoa Phat giao vi ngoai ao; trai lai, Phat t can sang suot e phong s anh lon song cua cac ngoai ao, s xuyen tac xao quyet e lam mat long tin sang suot cua chung ta. Chung ta phai luon luon tnh tao phan biet chanh, ta, chan, nguy; phai thng dung tr hue ma gian trach ca nhng phap ngoai va nhng y tng chn vong cua tam e tu, e oan.

2. Tinh tan: Nhng mot khi a la chon c phap mon chan chnh e tu roi, th phai tinh tan, ngha la luon luon dung tien tren bc ng tu tap, khong quan ngai gian lao kho nhoc, khong khiep s; khong thoi chuyen, khong t man, t cao ma bo d muc ch cha at c (nh a noi bai ngu can).

3. Hy: Ngha la hoan hy. Nh tinh tan tu hanh, nen oan tr c dan phien nao thanh tu vo lng cong c, do o, sanh tam hoan hy va phan ch tu hanh.

4. Khinh an: Khinh la nhe nhang. An la an on. Nh s tinh tien tu tap nen than tam c thanh tnh; do o ngi tu hanh cam thay nhe nhang, khoan khoai, khinh an, nh a trut c ganh nang duc vong, me m.

5. Niem: (Cung nh ch niem trong may bai trc) ngha la thng ghi nh chanh phap e thc hanh. Tam niem ta, neu khong thng nh chanh phap, tat nhien tap niem phat sanh, phien nao tang trng. Cung nh mot am at neu khong trong hoa, th co moc. V the ngi tu hanh can phai e tam ghi nh chanh phap, ng cho xao lang buong lung ngh bay.

6. nh: (Cung nh ch nh may bai trc) ngha la tam chuyen chu, tap trung vao phap mnh ang tu.

7. Xa: Ngha la bo ra ngoai khong vng ban. Xa tc la hanh xa tam s, mot trong 11 mon Thien tam s.

Hanh xa ngha la the nao?

Ngi tu hanh, nh tr sang suot, nhan biet "tho la kho", nen khong nam gi mot th nao het, du quy bau bao nhieu. Ngay trong s tu hanh cung vay, ho khong tru trc cac phap mnh a tu, a chng; trai lai ho luon luon xa bo nhng g mnh at en, e tien trien tren bc ng i en giai thoat. Neu ngi tu hanh c mai say am vao qua v mnh a chng, th suot i se b tram mot ni o, khong bao gi co the tien len, e at thanh ao qua vo thng Bo e. Kinh Kim Cang s co noi: "Ngi tu hanh phai nh ngi nng thuyen qua song, khi thuyen a cap ben, neu ta khong bo no e len b, th ng hong en au va biet g c. Ngi muon thanh ang sieu viet t tai, can phai t khc moi am say".

Phap hanh xa nay giup chung ta thanh tu s sieu viet.

C. Ket Luan

Tom lai, ngi tu bay phap Bo e phan nay, chac chan se c bon ket qua quy bau sau ay:

1. Tat ca phap ac eu c tieu tr.

2. Tat ca phap lanh cang ngay cang tang trng.

3. V thng tu thien, oan ac, nen luon luon c an lac, khong b au kho.

4. Se chng thanh Phat qua.

Minh Quang posted July 22, 2002

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